Oil Lamps in the Ancient World
Have patience, this is graphically intense and
For thousands of years small oil lamps were used for light in homes,
temples, taverns, and tombs. At least as far back as 3,500 BC, oil lamps
are known to have been in use, though crude by standards reached in the first
few centuries AD. Oil may have been used as a light source even further
back, in naturally cupped stone containers, and later, in Mesopotamia,
The common use of pottery containers for oil lamps, however, was
not to flourish until perhaps the 8th or 7th centuries BC. At first, pottery
lamps were simple wheel-thrown saucers. The wick, often of flax, was immersed
in the oil and draped on the saucer's rim. In most areas, olive oil was the
favoured fuel, but other vegetable oils and even animal fats could be used
as well. Before long, potter's discovered forming a small spout on the saucer helped keep the wick in place, and
soon after the sides of the saucer were simply folded up while the piece
was still moist, to create an even better wick support. The lamp at the
right, from Israel, shows this feature, and dates to about the 8th century BC.
From the evolution of the saucer lamps, pottery lamps came to be made
with enclosed bodies. The Greeks were among the most prolific of the
early lamp makers of these styles. They still continued to throw the
lamp bodies on a potter's wheel, but then hand attached spouts and
handles. Another innovation they utilized was glaze, which slowed the
inevitable seepage of oil into the porous clay body. Most Greek lamps
were glazed black or dark greens, but a few other colours are also known
to have been used. The black-glazed Greek lamp at the left was found in
Southern Italy, and dates to the 4th Century BC.
Clay is easily moulded, and this fact was not
lost upon the lamp makers. During the Hellenistic Age, lamp
moulds came into widespread use. By the 1st Century
BC, moulded lamps were as common as wheel-thrown lamps in most
parts of the ancient world. Moulds could be made of stone, clay, or
plaster. Stone moulds had to be labouriously hand carved out of
a soft rock, such as limestone, but once completed, would last
many years. Lamps were not slip cast, that is created from a
liquid clay mixture, but rather were press moulded, where the
clay is rolled into a sheet, and hand pressed into the mould,
and then the two halves pressed together. After a drying period,
the lamp could be removed, trimed and pierced, and put with others to
be fired in the kilns later on.
Clay and plaster moulds, unlike stone moulds, could be formed
by covering an archetype, or lamp model, such as the one
above. This archetype, from Athens, is solid fired clay, and dates to the 1st
Century BC. A two piece mould could be made using clay
or plaster, and then the archetype saved to use again if those
moulds broke or wore out. Normally, notches were made in one
side of the mould so that when its mate was cast, the two halves
would align perfectly. Such notches can be seen in a North
African or Tunisian mould, dating to about AD 400-500. One
of the advantages to using plaster for moulds, was that once it dried,
further decoration could easily be carved, something difficult to do
with clay. The use of moulds also allowed for more ornate decoration to
be put onto lamps, or even for the creation of three-dimentional
lamps in figures such as a helmet (like some found at Pompeii), a human
or animal head, or even an entire figure of an animal or human's body.
Highly ornate or figural lamps were often associated with temple offerings
more than domestic lighting use, but some more wealthy patrons
used them in their homes.
The other handy aspect of making plaster or clay moulds, was that
less skilled craftsmen could easily produce well executed lamps
by simply making his own mould off of a lamp he obtained from
elsewhere. This copying of lamps was a widespread practice,
and it can often be seen by lining up lamps of the exact same
design. Those which were moulded from a copy are smaller due
to clay shrinkage as they dried, and their decoration is often
less crisp than the original. Provincial lamp maker's found this practice an easy
way to keep up with popular lamp styles being produced elsewhere.
While highly decorated lamps were popular, and a cheap source of
art for even the humblest of homes, undecorated lamps were also
made in huge quantities. These are referred to as Firmalampen or
"Factory lamps" as they were mass produced, typically in larger cities.
The lamp at the left is one such example, from Rome and of a style common about
AD 25 to AD 75. Many of these factory lamps had a maker's stamp
on the bottom of them, produced by making the name in the mould,
so that it stood out on the lamp when pressed.
A few maker's gained such a name
for their wares, that even their stamp was copied by others throughout
the Empire. One such name often found copied was FORTIS, though
numerous others were also pirated in this way. Perhaps more common than
forged names on lamps, however, were "district offices". That is
large lamp makers in Rome or elsewhere may have opened authorized
lamp production centers in the Provinces who bore their trade-mark
name on the lamp. This was a marketing strategy that often followed
the Roman Army into areas that had created new markets for their
products. Besides utilizing local craftsmen, some lamp specialists
may have migrated as well, to set up the sub-contract lamp making
Other lamps were left undecorated, or the decoration
was limited in the subject matter, for religious reasons. In Israel,
for example, it was customary for locally produced lamps to avoid any
representation of a human or other living creature. Instead, they
either retained very plain lamps, such as the "Herodian" lamp seen here,
or used floral and geometric designs as seen below. The Herodian lamp,
still made by a mix of wheel and hand work until the at least the
1st Century AD, when some began to use moulds as well. While
popularly called a Herodian lamp, the use of this style extended
well before and after the reign of Herod the Great and Herod Agrippa
for they are known from sites datying to between the 1st Century BC
and the 2nd Century AD. These were, incidentally, perhaps the
most common style of lamp in use in Judea during the ministry of Jesus.
Another well known Jewish oil lamp style is called the "Darom",
after a region in the Hebron Hills where it originated. Shortly after
the Roman army destroyed the Second Temple in Jerusalem, refugees
from that city fled the occupation and settled in this region. It
is at this time that they developed this new style, which lasted from
about AD 70 to the end of the Bar-Kokhba Revolt, in AD 135. These
lamps followed the basic outline of the Herodian lamp, but the body
was flatter, and they were made exclusively in moulds. Most were
decorated with symetrical designs. A large number depicted items
with signficant religious or cultural meaning. The grapes on the
example at the left, for instance, are probably representative of
a golden grape cluster which was at the Temple before the Roman
Many other examples are known which depict items associated
with Jewish holidays. Sukkot, or the Festival of Tabernacles,
often was represented with a palm leaf or branch on oil lamps. Palms,
or fig trees, were also connected with Shavuot, or the Festival
of First Fruits. This festival featured
seven produce items; figs, wheat, barley, grapes, olives, pomegranates,
and honey. Symbols of all of these appeared on Darom lamps. Pesah, or Passover, was also represetned on the lamps, usually through a
depiction of unleavened bread, or sheaves of grain.
Objects of special iconographic significance were also featured on the
lamps. The Ark of the Covenant appears on some lamps, as does the
Menorah. The Menorah was a seven-branched candelabrum
in the Temple, and is described in detail in the Book of Exodus (25:31-40).
The representation of a menorah on an oil lamp in this period
was rather rare though. It was not until the following centuries that
it became more commonplace. This is probably a reflection of the prohibition
of making a replica of the Menorah in the Temple, and so many of
the early versions made their menorah depictions with a different
number of braches. By the 4th Century AD, this restriction had relaxed
somewhat, and seven branched menorahs appear more frequently. The
example shown here is North African, probably from Atripalda.
Another possible depiction of the menorah is found on
what are usually called "candlestick" lamps. These appear in early
Byzantine times, around the 5th or 6th Centuries AD. Others belive this
style is an abstract palm branch. In either case, there is clear evidence
that this style of lamp was very popular among Jews and Christians alike.
Variants of this lamp style sometimes substitute a cross near the nozzle,
and was especially popular in the Jerusalem area. Large groups of these
and the candlestick lamps have been found in tombs, left where they
were last burning, as the doors were sealed.
Yet another lamp of this type features an inscription on the
shoulders of the lamp body. Mostly written in debased Greek, the
major theme of the sayings were all the same, to the effect of "May the
Light of Christ shine well for you". Other variations were written,
but most all use this theme of light and Christ together, a powerful
symbol of the light in the darkness, and the Light of the word of
God. Many of these lamps were produced in the Christian areas of
Palestine, and imported to Jerusalem and other areas of Christian Israel.
At the same time that these almond shaped lamps were in use in the
Middle East, in the Mediterranean, North Africa had become a major
production center for oil lamps. Tunisia and Carthage were especially
noted for their red-ware lamps, which were exported all over the
Holy Roman Empire. Unlike the Jewish lamps seen above, these Christian
lamps of the 5th and 6th Centuries often depicted animals and
humans, and even Jesus and the Saints. Others used the popular
Christogram, a Greek letter monogram for Christ. Many other North African
lamps featured animals, with some of the older Roman trends reappearing,
such as running lions and birds, but now with altered symbolic significance.
Fish, an obvious Christain motif, were also popular, as were pictures of
saints. Not all lamps were religiously decorated, however. Scenes
with soldiers, fighting animals, and other more secular activities
were also common place. Few lamps by this period, though, had erotic
scenes, such as could be found on a few in earlier Roman times.
The same basic body style used on the "candelstick" Byzantine
period lamps survived in the Middle East well into the following
Islamic period. Returning to the Mosaic traditon of avoiding
depictions with living beings, the Islamic period lamps once
again were ornamented primarily with geometric and floral designs.
These lamps were found throughout the area from about AD 600 to AD
900, though in some areas the style survived for several more centuries.
Examples found in Caesarea, with this basic body design, but coated
with a green glaze, were used into the Crusader period, and are dated
to about AD 1200.
In the centuries that saw the decline of the use of clay oil lamps,
wheel m,ade versions made a significant comeback. Glass and metal
lamps also began to rise in popularity again, and eventually the
clay lamps lost the importance they had once played in the daily lives
of ancient people.
This brief introduction to lamps is naturally simplistic, but serves
only as an overview of a ceramic tradition that lasted for centuries. If
you would like to learn more about the ancient world, please investigate
some of the links below, but return to this page from time to time as many
improvements are planned.
This page was created by Museum Artifact Research
and Replication Services (MARRS) Copyright 1997.
Send comments to MARRS.
The background to this page is from a wall mural at Pompeii
in the House of Venus, known as the "Floating Venus".
It probably dates to sometime in the 60's AD.
LINKS to the ANCIENT WORLD
A fun and educational site on Roman board games
Another site devoted to Roman recreation
Explore the Roman calendar and find out if today's a holiday!
A resource base on ancient Greece and Rome
Explore Pompeii through an archaeological investigation
Archives and links from an academic oriented list on ancient Roman issues
A Roman living history group based in the UK
A Roman living history group in the US